What is physics? Physics is the study of nature. When we talk about the history of physics which not only has evolved with respect to time but it would be interesting to know that it was the part of philosophy and with time due to its vastness it was classified as a new branch of science called physika which later on changed to physics. If someone asks me what is physics? I would say it is not a dream rather it is the truth of this universe. Physics is the study of nature. it is the study of both matter and energy and also about their mutual relationship. Since a long time there have been many philosophers, scientists and physicists worked and are working for the advancement of this field of education. Here we will talk about the Difference Between Classical and Modern Physics?
Classical and modern physics
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Physics which is an about twentieth-century ago was the classical physics which also called Newtonian, Galileon physics. Physics after the twentieth century is now known as quantum or modern physics. Actually, modern physics is the update of the old classical physics, there are some important changes that have been brought. Some of the well-known scientists are Einstein, Maxwell, hawking, Neil Bohr, Erwin Schrodinger, DeBroglie and etc.
What are the differences between classical and modern physics?
We will talk about three major differences between classical and modern physics.
It was Sir Isaac Newton who gave us the idea of absolute quantities. He had a belief that length, time and mass are the quantities that couldn’t be changed in any circumstances. He said if e.g. the ball has a mass of 50gram it would always be 50 whether it is on earth, on the moon, at rest or moving with a certain high velocity. This also happens for both length and time. They were understood as absolute.
Then in the twentieth century a young scientist at the age of twenty proposed theory of relativity. The young scientist was Sir Albert Einstein. In his theory, he initially set the speed of light as a universal constant which is about 3*108 meter per second. He said that nothing can move above the speed of light. Unlike Newton, he gave the concept of relativity. He said that no quantity in this universe is absolute every quantity is relative to the other.
He said if we move with speed of light or a fraction to the speed of light three changes. mass would increase (mass dilation), the distance would get shorter (length contraction) and time will increase (time dilation) would occur. Therefore, a photon at rest has no mass while in motion has a significant mass. Motion and rest are not absolute they are also relative depending upon the observer.
Confusion in the appearance of light
The most interesting clash between classical and quantum physics is the appearance of light to be a wave or a particle. Newton believed light to be made of particles which he called corpuscles. The experiment performed by Newton (Newton rings) proved light to be a wave. Einstein also believed light to be a particle which he called as photon and performed an experiment photoelectric effect and proved light to be a particle. Then came DeBroglie who gave the concept of matter waves and explained the dual nature of light. He said matters when to move, they actually move in the form of waves. For smaller objects these waves are detectable but for larger objects, these waves can’t be detected. We will further talk about light in our next article.
Update in-laws of classical physics
Classical physics mostly worked on medium-sized and rarely heavenly objects, unlike modern physics due to lack of facilities they almost never studied atom completely and more efficiently. Therefore, the laws of classical physics were perfect for normal sized and normal moving objects. These laws when applied on small-sized objects like atom, electron, proton, etc. They couldn’t explain the observed phenomena. Like it is very common for every object that moves must radiate energy while when it was seen in the case of the electron, the spectrum obtained was never a continues spectrum. This means that while electron moves in its particular orbit it never radiate or releases energy. Thus, laws of classical physics need modification to be used in the quantum level.